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Girl Stretching
Physiotherapist examining knee
Physiotherapy doing a knee examination
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Knee Physiotherapy

Start your road to recovery today

Common Conditions

Knee pain is very common and affects approximately 25% of adults and is also common in active children. We can suffer from knee pain during activities such as walking, running, going up and down the stairs or when bending or straightening the knee. Generally, most knee pain can resolve with the appropriate Physiotherapy treatment and rehabilitation and does not require any further intervention.  However, in some cases, further treatment such as injection therapy or surgery is required. 


The Knee can present with many injuries that may occur from a trauma such as a ligament sprain, muscle tear, meniscus injury, bony injury or others. Overuse injuries may be attributed to imbalances in the lower limb such as poor movement patterns, reduced muscular strength/endurance, poor stability or a lack of mobility.  Overuse injuries generally come on over time and may impact different structures such as the patella tendon, PFJ and bursa. To be able to ascertain accurately your injury and the most suitable way forward, we use conventional methods and digital technology in our assessment to determine not just your diagnosis but other contributing factors. There are many knee injuries we see in Edinburgh Physiotherapy and here are just some of the most common conditions listed below. 

For information on Children's knee pain click here

Click on the links below to get more detailed knee injury information

knee anatomy image and descriptions

The Knee

The knee joint is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body and is classified as a hinge joint. The knee is composed of the femur, tibia, fibula and patella. The meeting of the Femur and Tibia make up the knee joint known as the tibiofemoral joint, while the fibula on the outside is present but it doesn't directly impact the movement, however, many structures attach to the fibula contributing to this. The Patella is the small bone at the front (knee cap) and is known as the patella-femoral joint. 


As the knee is a hinge joint, it can flex, extend but it can also rotate slightly. There are various muscles that control and allow these movements which are attached to tendons that then attach to a bone. The ligaments such as the ACL, PCL, MCL and LCL provide stability, while special cartilage (meniscus)  works to absorb pressure and provide some stability as well. There are various other structures that aid in allowing smooth, pain-free movement, such as articular cartilage, fat pad, bursa and others. When we move, bend, run or twist, the knee is under high levels of stress and we need all of the structures to work well together to provide movement that seems effortless. If we have an injury this can disrupt the knees homeostasis which can then cause reduced movement or pain.

Physiotherapy examination of knee joint pain

Knee Assessment

During a visit to the Clinic in Edinburgh  for Knee Specialist Physio, your knee assessment will incur a highly-skilled examination and then treatment by using the most current evidence to date. Your specific injury will dictate what your knee assessment will be as no two knees and injuries are the same. We not only assess your joint and muscles but may also assess your Lower Limb Stability, Muscle endurance and Peak force/Strength, Proprioception, Gait, Jump and Landing biomechanics. By using motion video analysis, Muscle dynamometers and other equipment we can gather the required amount of data to then give you the correct treatment, rehabilitation, and guidelines. The knee assessment will take between 30 mins to 60 mins. Once completed you and your Knee Specialist Physio will discuss the most suitable intervention and way forward.

Top 5 knee injury prevention tips 

  1. Keep your quadriceps (thigh) muscles strong. These are the guys that help reduce forces going into the knee joint and the patella when going downstairs, walking, and bending down.

  2.  Keep the joint mobile- Biking is fantastic for maintaining and improving joint mobility. This bathes the joint surfaces and cartilage with micronutrients improving your knee joint health and of course your overall health and wellbeing.

  3. Keep the hip muscles strong. Evidence shows that weak hip /buttock muscles can contribute to knee pain. So keep working on the gluteals. 

  4. Keep flexible, especially in your quadriceps and your calf muscles. Tightness here can negatively impact forces on the patella during sitting and also walking. Simple daily stretches can positively impact this.

  5. If you are in Pain seek out your Physiotherapist. Don't let pain carry on as it may only require a simple set of exercises to help you. If you need other interventions we can also guide you and help you start your road to recovery. 

I have known Stuart for 10 years from when I was at Chelsea FC. I have had multiple career-threatening injuries that he has helped me rehabilitate and recover from, and return to full fitness and playing again. I would highly recommend Stuart to anyone who is concerned about their injury or is having problems returning to normal function or fitness as he always got me back to professional football.

Mr Adam Coombes, Footballer, ex Chelsea FC, Notts County FC.  July 2019

Orthopaedic Consultants

For further investigations and interventions, I would highly recommend

Mr Mark Gaston a leading knee Orthopaedic consultant  

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